Land use and land cover (LULC) have 19-classes and are of 100-m resolution and are sourced from Earth Data repository DAAC. These datasets are for India and are of time periods 1985, 1995 and 2005. These maps were derived using Landsat 4 and 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) for 1985, Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Multispectral (MSS) data for 1995, India Remote Sensing satellites (IRS) Resourcesat Linear Imaging Self-Scanning Sensor-1 or III (LISS-I, LISS-III) data for 2005. The team conducted ground truth surveys, and visual interpretation for classification of 2005 data. Then backdated overlay analysis and change detection is done to derive 1995 and 1985 classes. The data were classified according to the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) classification scheme.
population density (number of persons per square kilometer) are of 30 arc-second grid cells for the years 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2020 based on national census and population registers from Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC). The gridded population of the world data sets were used a proportional allocation gridding algorithm, utilizing approximately 13.5 million national and sub-national administrative units, was used to assign population counts to 30 arc-second grid cells.